Posted By: Christopher Bollyn
Thu Dec 28, 2006 15:14


Posted By: ChristopherBollyn
Date: Friday, 31 December 2004, 12:00 a.m.

The following document by Marion Fulk, a nuclear physical chemist, and Leuren Moret, a geo-scientist, provides a concise and essential explanation of the biological response to depleted uranium (DU) particulate internal exposure.

Military research laboratories report that the particulate effect of DU causes 1 million times more damage than the expected damage from the radiation effect alone - genetic damage. Cancer starts with a single alpha particle under the right conditions.

The following letter was written by Marion Fulk, former scientist with the Manhattan Project and nuclear physical chemist at the National [nuclear weapons] Laboratory at Livermore, California.

The letter is addressed to Dr. Chris Busby, a radiation expert who has written independent reports on low level radiation exposure for the British government and the European Parliament.

The use of depleted uranium weapons is causing a nuclear holocaust, with a global effect.

Leuren Moret,
Berkeley, California

December 14, 2004

Dr. Chris Busby
Green Audit
9 Prospect Street
Aberystwyth, Wales SY23 1JJ
United Kingdom

Dear Dr. Busby,

At your request, Marion Fulk and I are providing information and details on internal exposure to depleted uranium particulates.

Mr. Fulk is a nuclear physical chemist, retired from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California. He conducted research on rainout of very fine radioactive particulates generated by atmospheric testing for the Nuclear Weapons Program. He holds a high level US Govt. clearance, and is an international expert on radiation and the biological effects from internal exposure.

I am the Past President of the Association for Women Geoscientists, with a background in the Geosciences. I have conducted extensive scientific research on atmospheric dust, the transport and cycling of radionuclides through the environment and through biological systems. I am recognized as an international expert, on the impact on global public health and the health of the environment, from radiation caused by atmospheric testing, nuclear power plants and depleted uranium.

Mr. Fulk and I are actively conducting research on the particulate effect, and internal radiation exposure. The particulate effect is newly recognized as a result of studies on the biological and medical effects of depleted uranium internal exposure.

Internal exposure to depleted uranium is known to have three separate effects which may or may not act together, which may occur at different times, or have delayed effects:

1. Chemical – changes in a substance due to an alteration of its chemical composition caused by changes in its atoms or molecules;

2. Radiological – changes when the nucleus of an isotope undergoes disintegration and releases energy in the form of alpha or beta particles and/or gamma rays. About 30% of radiation damage to cells is caused by the “bullet effect” of the alpha and beta particles tearing through the cells. About 70% of the damage is caused by changes in the cells and biological molecules from the energy dissipated along the pathway of the alpha and beta particles, and gamma rays;

3. Particulate – changes caused by the particle size, the most harmful being nano-particles which are defined as particles with a diameter of 0.1 micron and smaller.

Because you have already provided information about the chemical and radiological effects detailed in the ECRR Report (2003) and the CHERRIE Report (2004), this letter will primarily address the particulate effect.


The “particulate effect” is a new phenomenon. It is now being recognized from research on nano-particles and from the effects of battlefield and downwind exposure to depleted uranium.

The resulting complex of diseases caused by depleted uranium and possible chemical exposure is known as Gulf War Syndrome (Table 1).

Depleted uranium gas and dust, formed on the battlefield, produces large numbers of extremely fine particles. The greatest number by mass on the battlefield are formed in the nano-particle range – 0.1 microns and smaller (1). Coincidentally, international funding and research in the new field of nano-technology has also provided details from studies on the effects of nano-particles, which until now have not been well studied. Recently discoveries have revealed that there is a particulate effect caused by these nano-particles in living tissues. There are now 16 peer-reviewed journals devoted to the new field of nano-technology.

In a normal air sample there are billions of dust particles in a range of sizes. For example there are 1 billion dust particles with a diameter of 0.1 micron per cubic meter. A diameter of 0.1 micron is about 100 times smaller than a blood cell. An average man breathes about 28 cubic meters of air per day, inhaling approximately 28 billion 0.1 micron particles.

This is also the peak population size of invisible atmospheric dust particles, which are transported around the world and remain permanently suspended until they are rained or snowed out of the atmosphere. Nano-particles remain suspended by Brownian motion, and do not behave like larger sized particles. They behave according to the rules of quantum mechanics.

Some nano-particles have catalytic and extraordinary electronic properties, like oxides of uranium, which behave in non-stoichiometric ways. Uranium is a very large and complex atom, with a large cloud of many electrons around the nucleus as well as in the outer shells. Uranium can act as a reducer, donating electrons, or as an oxidizer, scavenging or accepting electrons. Because uranium compounds are unpredictable in the way they behave, uranium is also biologically unpredictable. In this atmosphere of unpredictability characteristic of uranium, anything can happen.

Because uranium and phosphate have an interaction, uranium can interfere with biological processes where the phosphate structure is present. Examples are in the DNA, the histone or Master Code (2) which controls part of the _expression of the DNA, and fragments of the RNA which control part of the _expression of the DNA.




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